Lemon – a citrus fruit, the fruit of a small evergreen tree Citrus limon. It grows in subtropical regions of the Mediterranean, the United States, Mexico, Argentina, the countries of the Caucasus, Central Asia, and others.
The word “lemon” in Russia appeared at the end of the XVI century and was borrowed from Persian. But the really popular in Russia, this fruit has become little more than a hundred years ago. In Russia, a slice of lemon is added to the tea. What happens in the end, in the West, by the way, referred to as “Russian tea.” In Russia there was another incomprehensible to the Western tradition – snack lemon vodka and cognac. About Russian way of using brandy, however, it is not necessary to tell the French: Take their nervous system.
It is believed that the lemon is very useful because it contained a large amount of vitamin C. But a lot of lemon and other beneficial substances. The fruit pulp contains citric and malic acid, pectin, salts of copper and potassium, volatile, vitamins F, B and carotene.
In some cases, lemon can cause human acute allergic reaction. This is due, for example, by treatment with lemon trees various chemicals to protect them from pests. That’s why lemons should be well washed before consumption. Lemon is also not recommended for people who suffer from hyperacidity and various diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. If you have colds very sore throat or nose, lemon juice will cause severe irritation of the nose, aggravating the situation. Also lemons should not get involved in hypertensive patients and people suffering from pancreatitis.
The types and grades
The varieties of lemon, there are many; they are different forms of plants (and bushy tree), the season and adapted to the particular climate.
Lemons different varieties being transported to Russia from abroad – from Mediterranean countries (Turkey, Morocco, etc.) And the former Soviet Union (Azerbaijan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan). Grow lemon and Russia – the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus.
Lemons and is often grown in apartments, including in Russia. Lemons on the windows have long been known for the town of Pavlovo-on-Oka Nizhny Novgorod region. Actually, Pavlovsky lemon – a separate grade of trees, from which you can get three dozen fruit per year.
How to cook
Lemons eaten fresh, used in the manufacture of confectionery and soft drinks, alcoholic beverage and perfume industries.
As spice lemon added to a variety of fruit salads, desserts, pastries, sauces, jams, creams, in fish, poultry and rice dishes. Sprinkle with lemon juice, for example, Viennese schnitzel, fried fish, add it to the salad dressing (vinegar instead).
One of the most common spices of North Africa – chopped lemons, which stand about 30 days in the lemon juice with salt and spices (cinnamon, cloves, coriander). For example, in the Moroccan kitchen lemons are used in many traditional meat and fish dishes.
Seasonings and serve grated lemon zest (peel), which is added to bakery and confectionery products, and in the kitchen of the Mediterranean – and in fish soups.
Very tasty lemon cakes and pies. In addition, lemon drops – a beautifully decorated dishes.
From lemon make drinks – lemonade or, for example, the Italian liqueur Limoncello.
Season collection of lemons in different regions is different, depending on the climatic characteristics of the specific terrain. Somewhere it is collected in winter and spring, in other places – in the fall and winter; there are regions where the harvest season is in the summer of lemons. Thus, we can assume lemon multigrade product.
How to choose and store
When buying lemons, first ask yourself why you buy them; for long term storage, or you’re going to eat them quickly? Lemons stored for a long time, provided their correct choice.
The bright color of the fetus is not always indicative of the degree of maturity. We need to be guided on the hardness of the fruit. Fully ripe fruit myagkovata the touch, but at the same time slightly springy. Such lemons shelf life is extremely small, they should be used as quickly as possible. If the fetus is overripe, it feels it will be very soft.
The thickness of the rind of lemon depends on how many times bear fruit tree on which it grew. The smaller crops were harvested from the tree, the more subtle will peel lemon. Lemon thick skin, usually more useful than lemon peel fine.
Sometimes, during storage and transport of sub-cooled lemons or frozen, which is bad for their beneficial properties. If lemon supercooled, there will be little to ospinki, sunken brownish dots. In addition, if the lemon was supercooled, a thin film of the lobes moves very easily. In the frozen lemons bitter taste.
Lemons can be stored for a long time, up to several months, without harm to its structure and without any loss of its beneficial properties. It is best to keep them on the lower shelves of the refrigerator or in a vegetable compartment.
The freezer is not necessary to put the lemons, it is bad for their beneficial properties, taste and texture.
Keep lemons should be uncut. It is necessary to cut the fruit – and out of it immediately begins to evaporate and break such a valuable vitamin C, which is bad contact with the sugar and low and high temperatures.